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Nepal By-Elections on April 27th 2024: Replacement of Ilham-2 Constituency Member in the House of Representatives

© A vacant seat within the House of Representatives is filled within the Nepal by-elections. Photo Source: Elimende Inagella via Unsplash. November 15th, 2020.

Nepal By-Elections on April 27th 2024: Replacement of Ilham-2 Constituency Member in the House of Representatives


Written by Pauliina Majasaari (East Asia Team)

Global Human Rights Defence

Nepal will be holding elections on April 27th, 2024, to elect a replacement member from the Ilam-2 constituency for the House of Representatives (HoR), as the former member, Subas Chandra Nembang passed away due to a heart attack. Mr. Nembang had continuously won the constituency since 1999, so the next member will have big shoes to fill in lieu of him.


The Federal Parliament of Nepal is a bicameral legislature, formed by the HoR, or the lower house and the National Assembly, also known as the upper house. The HoR is formed firstly of single-member constituencies, meaning that one member is elected from each of the 165 parliamentary constituencies of Nepal, and secondly 110 members are elected on a proportional representation based on votes provided to political parties where Nepal is considered to be one constituency. Thereby, voters cast two ballots, one for their constituency and one for a political party. The elected HoR conducts its work for a term of five years, unless it is dissolved before the end of its term.


In total, 20 candidates have registered for the Ilam-2 constituency elections, however certain political parties and their candidates play a key role in the upcoming elections. These consist of representatives from several different political parties, such as the Communist Party of Nepal – Unified Marxist Lenist (CPN-UML), the Nepali Congress (NC), the Rastriya Swatantra Party (RSP), and individuals who are not affiliated with any political party.


The UML has chosen Suhan Nembang, the son of the late member Mr. Nembang, while the Maoist Centre is supporting the UML candidate in the elections. The Nepali Congress has fielded Dambar Bahadur Khadaka for the open seat, a candidate who was known for conducting social service work within the area, while the RSP has chosen Milan Limbu as their candidate. The CPN (Unified Socialists) nominated Jeet Bahadur Rai for the elections and the Rastriya Prajatantra Party has chosen Laxmi Gurung as their candidate. Dakendra Singh Thegim, a candidate without party affiliation, has stood out with his fascinating electoral campaign. His children are singers, and to promote his campaign, his daughter will sing, gathering large crowds who started dancing along, while the focal point of his campaign is to prioritise issues on ethnic identity.


Furthermore, the RSP has been speaking on behalf of development of the Ilam-2 area and raised concerns about the lack of proper infrastructure, such as roads and bridges, healthcare, education and agriculture. These topics align with the issues that the voters are most concerned about when choosing who to support; these include tea prices, the diary product market, and improving the current status of inadequate healthcare and access to quality education.


It is clear that issues related to social and economic rights are at the forefront of the voters’ minds. As such, the right to education and the right to enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health are commitments which Nepal should be addressing, as reiterated under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. It is hoped that the new Ilam-2 constituency elect will  prioritise these pivotal matters and the voters are aiming to select a candidate who will advocate for the crucial rights of the people from their constituency. If the new elect does prioritise these aforementioned issues, social and economic rights will likely be on the rise within the Ilam-2 constituency.


Main takeaways of the upcoming HoR By-Elections 2024:

  1. Date:
    The by-elections of Ilam-2 constituency will be held on April 27th, 2024.
  2. Key political parties and their candidates:
    a) CPN-UML: Suhan Nembang
    b) Nepali Congress: Dambar Bahadur Khadaka
    c) Rashtriya Swatantra Party: Milan Limbu
    d) Unified Socialists: Jeet Bahadur Rai
    e) Rastriya Swatantra Party: Laximi Gurung
    f) No affiliation: Dakendra Singh Thegim

  3. Pressing issues on voters’ minds:
    a) Lack of conditioned infrastructure: Roads and bridges need repairing.
    b) Agriculture: The price of tea and the development of a market for dairy products.
    c) Healthcare: The current status of healthcare is inadequate.
    d) Education: Lack of access to education and quality education.



Bal Krishna Sah, ‘RSP nominates Milan Limbu for the Ilam-2 by-polls’ The Himalayan Times (29 March 2024) <> accessed 23 April 2024.


International covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural rights (adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 3 January 1976) 993 UNTS 3.


Khim Lal Devkota, ‘Law-Making Processes in Federal Nepal’ Georgia State University (May 2022) International Center for Public Policy: Working Paper 22.


Prem Ahikari, Pashupatinagar, ‘Political dynamics shifts in Ilam-2 by-poll’ The Rising Nepal (21 April 2024) <> accessed 23 April 2024.


‘Rastriya Swatantra Party picks Milan Limbu for Ilam-2 by poll’ Nepal Live Today (28 March 2024) <> accessed 23 April 2024.

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